Symptoms and Treatment for Ankylosing Spondylitis


October 10, 2023

Ankylosing spondylitis, also known as AS, is a type of arthritis that primarily affects the spine. It is a chronic inflammatory disease that causes pain, stiffness, and immobility in the affected areas. The condition often starts in early adulthood and progressively worsens over time. While there is no cure for ankylosing spondylitis, various treatments can help manage the symptoms and improve the quality of life for individuals living with this condition.

Understanding Ankylosing Spondylitis

Ankylosing spondylitis is characterized by inflammation in certain parts of the spine, leading to stiffness and pain. The disease primarily affects the sacroiliac joint, which connects the spine to the hipbone. Over time, bony bridges may form between the vertebrae, causing them to fuse together. This fusion results in a straight and stiff spine, reducing flexibility and causing a stooped posture. In some cases, the disease can also affect other joints, such as the hips and shoulders.

The exact cause of ankylosing spondylitis is unknown, but researchers believe that genetics play a significant role. The presence of a specific gene called HLA-B27 is associated with an increased risk of developing the condition. However, not everyone with this gene develops ankylosing spondylitis, indicating that other factors may also contribute to its development.

Symptoms of Ankylosing Spondylitis

The symptoms of ankylosing spondylitis can vary from person to person and may come and go over time. The most common symptoms include:

  • Back pain: Persistent pain in the lower back that is usually worse at night or after periods of inactivity.
  • Morning stiffness: Stiffness and difficulty moving the spine, particularly in the morning or after prolonged periods of rest.
  • Stooped posture: A forward curvature of the spine, leading to a hunched appearance.
  • Reduced flexibility: The fusion of vertebrae restricts the movement of the spine, resulting in reduced flexibility.
  • Difficulty breathing: If the ribs are affected, it can be challenging to take deep breaths.
  • Fatigue: Feeling tired and lacking energy.
  • Joint pain: Inflammation can also affect other joints, such as the hips and shoulders.
  • Eye inflammation: Some individuals with ankylosing spondylitis may experience inflammation in the eyes, leading to redness, pain, and sensitivity to light.
  • Digestive issues: Inflammation may extend to the digestive tract, causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, or constipation.

It is important to note that these symptoms can overlap with other conditions, so a proper diagnosis from a healthcare professional is essential.

Diagnosing This Condition

Diagnosing ankylosing spondylitis involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. A healthcare provider may perform the following:

  • Medical history: The healthcare provider will ask about the individual’s symptoms, family history, and perform a comprehensive assessment of their overall health.
  • Physical examination: The healthcare provider will examine the spine, joints, and areas of pain or discomfort to assess mobility, flexibility, and any signs of inflammation.
  • Imaging tests: X-rays, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or computed tomography (CT) scans may be used to visualize the spine and joints, identify any signs of inflammation or fusion, and rule out other conditions.
  • Blood tests: Blood tests, including the HLA-B27 gene test and tests to measure inflammation markers like erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP), can help support the diagnosis.

It is crucial to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis as early intervention can help manage symptoms and slow disease progression.

Treatment Options for Available

While there is no cure for ankylosing spondylitis, various treatment options can help alleviate symptoms and improve overall well-being. The goal of treatment is to reduce pain, manage inflammation, maintain spinal mobility, and improve quality of life. The treatment plan may include:

1. Medications

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): These medications help reduce pain and inflammation, providing relief from symptoms.
  • Biologic medicines: Tumor-necrosis-factor blockers and interleukin-17A inhibitors are biologic medications that target specific components of the immune system to reduce inflammation and slow disease progression.
  • Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs): These medications aim to modify the underlying disease process, reducing inflammation and preventing joint damage.

2. Physical Therapy and Exercise

  • Physical therapy: Working with a physical therapist can help improve spinal mobility, strengthen muscles, and maintain proper posture.
  • Exercise: Regular exercise, including stretching, strengthening, and cardiovascular activities, can help reduce pain, improve flexibility, and maintain overall fitness.

3. Posture and Lifestyle Modifications

  • Maintaining proper posture: Practicing good posture can help minimize pain, improve breathing, and prevent further spinal deformities.
  • Ergonomic adjustments: Making adjustments to workstations, chairs, and beds can help support the spine and reduce discomfort.
  • Heat and cold therapy: Applying heat or cold packs to affected areas can help reduce pain and inflammation.

4. Surgical Interventions

  • Joint replacement surgery: In severe cases where joint damage is significant, joint replacement surgery may be considered to improve mobility and alleviate pain.
  • Spinal surgery: In rare instances, surgery may be necessary to correct severe spinal deformities or remove bony protrusions that impede movement.

5. Lifestyle Modifications

  • Stress management: Developing effective stress management techniques, such as relaxation exercises or counseling, can help cope with the challenges of living with a chronic condition.
  • Quit smoking: Smoking can worsen symptoms and disease progression, so quitting smoking is highly recommended.

It is essential to work closely with a healthcare provider to develop a personalized treatment plan that addresses individual needs and goals.

Living with Ankylosing Spondylitis

Living with ankylosing spondylitis can present challenges, but several lifestyle modifications can help individuals manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life. Here are some tips:

  • Stay active: Regular exercise and physical activity can help reduce pain, improve flexibility, and maintain overall health. Engage in activities like swimming, walking, or yoga, which are gentle on the joints.
  • Practice good posture: Be mindful of your posture throughout the day, whether sitting, standing, or lying down. Use ergonomic supports, such as lumbar cushions or adjustable chairs, to maintain proper spinal alignment.
  • Manage stress: Stress can exacerbate symptoms, so finding healthy ways to manage stress, such as practicing relaxation techniques or engaging in hobbies, is crucial for overall well-being.
  • Maintain a healthy weight: Excess weight can strain the joints and worsen symptoms. Maintaining a healthy weight through proper nutrition and regular exercise can reduce the burden on the joints.
  • Get support: Joining support groups or connecting with others who have ankylosing spondylitis can provide emotional support, helpful tips, and a sense of community.


Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that predominantly affects the spine. While there is no cure, early diagnosis and appropriate management can help individuals lead fulfilling lives despite the challenges posed by this condition. By working closely with healthcare professionals, adhering to treatment plans, and making lifestyle modifications, individuals with ankylosing spondylitis can effectively manage their symptoms, reduce pain, and maintain a good quality of life. Remember, seeking professional medical advice is crucial for accurate diagnosis and personalized treatment.

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